When To Plant Yellow Jasmine, Jasminum Humile


Latin NameJasminum Humile
CommonnameYellow Jasmine
SynonymsJ. bignoniaceum. Wall.
Known HazardsNone known
RangeE. Asia – China to the Himalayas.
HabitatScrub and dry valleys, 1500 – 3000 metres in the Himalayas[184]. Also found in forests in Srinagar[145].
HabitShrub
Height3ft
Width3ft
Hardyness8
Months In LeafJan - Dec
ScentedYes
Flowering TimeJuly
PollinatorsInsects
Edible UsesThe leaves are used as a condiment[177, 183]. A tea is made from the leaves and bark[183].
MedicinalThe flowers are astringent and a tonic for the heart and bowels[240]. A paste made frm the flowers is considered effective in the treatment of intestinal problems[272]. The juice of the root is used in the treatment of ringworm[240, 272]. The milky juice of the plant is used for destroying the unhealthy lining walls of chronic sinuses and fistulas[240].
Uses NotesWood – even-grained, moderately hard[146].
Cultivation DetailsSucceeds in a good well-drained loam in a sunny position[1, 200]. Tolerates light shade[202]. Tolerates most soil types, including dry soils once it is established[202]. This species is not very cold hardy, tolerating temperatures down to about -10°c[184]. It requires some protection such as a warm wall when grown outdoors in Britain[200]. There are some named varieties selected for their ornamental value[188]. The flowers are slightly scented[245]. Plants produce suckers and these can sometimes be invasive[202]. Pruning can be carried out in early to mid spring. Removing one third of the oldest growth down to ground level rejuvenates the plant and encourages greater flowering[202]. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[200].
PropagationSeed – best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. Very easy. Cuttings of mature wood in November. Layering.
Deciduous / EvergreenEvergreen
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When To Plant Yellow Loosestrife, Lysimachia Vulgaris


Latin NameLysimachia Vulgaris
CommonnameYellow Loosestrife
Known HazardsNone known
RangeMost areas of Europe and Asia, including Britain, but excluding the extreme north and south.
HabitatMarshes, streams and in shallow water in reed swamps[187]. Shady places near water, avoiding acid soils[4, 17].
HabitPerennial
Height1.2ft
Hardyness5
Flowering TimeApril
PollinatorsBees, flies, self
SelffertileY
Edible UsesYoung leaves[105, 177]. No more details are given.
MedicinalAn astringent herb, yellow loosestrife is principally used to treat gastro-intestinal conditions such as diarrhoea and dysentery, to stop internal and external bleeding and to cleanse wounds[254]. The herb is astringent, demulcent and expectorant[4, 61]. It is harvested when in flower in July and dried for later use[4]. The plant can be used internally or externally and is useful in checking bleeding of the mouth, nose and wounds, restraining profuse haemorrhages of any kind and in the treatment of diarrhoea[4]. It makes a serviceable mouthwash for treating sore gums and mouth ulcers[254].
Uses NotesA yellow dye is obtained from the flowers[13, 100]. A brown dye is obtained from the rhizomes[13]. The growing plant repels gnats and flies, it has been burnt in houses in order to remove these insects[4].
Cultivation DetailsAn easily grown plant, succeeding in a moist or wet loamy soil in sun or partial shade[187]. Prefers a shady position[111]. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Hardy to at least -25°c[187]. Most species in this genus seem to be immune to the predations of rabbits[233]. A very ornamental plant[1]. The sub-species L. vulgaris davurica. (Ledeb.)Kunth. is the form used for food in China and Japan[177].
PropagationSeed – sow spring or autumn in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer. Division in spring or autumn[200]. Very easy, larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the spring. Basal cuttings, March to April in a cold frame. Harvest the shoots with plenty of underground stem when they are about 8 – 10cm above the ground. Pot them up into individual pots and keep them in light shade in a cold frame or greenhouse until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the summer.
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When To Plant Yellow Lupin, Lupinus Luteus


Latin NameLupinus Luteus
CommonnameYellow Lupin
SynonymsL. odoratus.
Known HazardsThe seed of many lupin species contain bitter-tasting toxic alkaloids, though there are often sweet varieties within that species that are completely wholesome[65, 76]. Taste is a very clear indicator. These toxic alkaloids can be leeched out of the seed by soaking it overnight and discarding the soak water. It may also be necessary to change the water once during cooking[K]. Fungal toxins also readily invade the crushed seed and can cause chronic illness[65].
RangeEurope – Italy and the Mediterranean.
HabitatLight acid soils[50].
HabitAnnual
Height0.6ft
Width0.25ft
Hardyness6
ScentedYes
Flowering TimeJune
Seed RipensAug - Dec
PollinatorsBees
Nitrogenfixer1
Edible UsesSeed – cooked[2, 46, 105]. Used as a protein-rich vegetable or savoury dish in any of the ways that cooked beans are used. The seed can also be ground into a powder and be mixed with cereal flours for making bread etc[183]. If the seed is bitter this is due to the presence of toxic alkaloids and the seed should not be eaten without treatment[183]. These alkaloids can usually be removed by soaking the seed in 2 or 3 changes of water. Low alkaloid varieties were developed prior to 1930 by Von Sengbusch[183]. The roasted seed is a coffee substitute[183].
MedicinalNone known
Uses NotesA good green manure for poor soils, it is quite fast growing and fixes atmospheric nitrogen[50, 61, 87]. It is commonly grown as a soil improver in southern Europe[245].
Cultivation DetailsAn easily grown plant, succeeding in any moderately good soil in a sunny position[1, 200]. Succeeds in poor soils[46]. Requires an acid to neutral soil[200]. Cultivated for its edible seed in Italy[2], there are a number of varieties with sweet tasting seeds[183]. The flowers have a delicious vanilla-like perfume, the cultivar ‘Romulus’ has been especially mentioned[245]. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby[200]. When removing plant remains at the end of the growing season, it is best to only remove the aerial parts of the plant, leaving the roots in the ground to decay and release their nitrogen.
PropagationPre-soak the seed for 24 hours in warm water and sow in mid spring in situ[1, 200]. You may need to protect the seed from mice. Germination should take place within 2 weeks. The seed can also be sown in situ as late as early summer as a green manure crop.
Acid1
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